Toubkal is a Summit known also as North Africa Roof located in the Moroccan Toubkal National Park. At 4,167 meters (13,671 ft), its the highest peak in the Atlas Mountains, Anti Atlas, North Africa and the entire Arab World. the peak is located at 63 km south of the red city of Marrakesh and it is a very known and popular destination for climbers & trekkers from all over the world .
The first ascent date back to the 12th of June 1923 by a team of 3 Men (the Marquis de Segonzac, Vincent Berger, and Hubert Dolbeau) but the mountain itself have been climbed way before that date.
Trekkers & Hikers usually approach the mountain from the road-end village of Imlil situated at Ait Mizane Tribe .
The Classic route starts with an easy walk to the berber village of Aroumd. Past Around a floodplain is crossed and the route follows the left slope of the valley southwards. The valley bends to the east Sidi Chamharouch Shrine . At Sidi Chamharouch, the path leads over the stream and runs steeply uphill to the right side of the Isougouane , which leads to two stone-built refuges known as Neltner Refuge and new Mouflons Refuge ) that are often used as base camp at 3,207 m (10,522 ft).
From that point, a path crosses the stream, climbs a steep scree slope to the east and enters a valley (Corrie), then climbs another steep slope to reach a col (Tizi’n’Toubkal at 3,940m). At the col the route turns left (northwards) to the summit ridge of Jbel Toubkal. The 4,167m summit is crowned with a pyramidal metal Triangle and views take in most of the Atlas and Little Atlas Mountains.
The Climb during the summeris non technical yet moderately difficult, only complicated by steep and slippery scree slopes and altitude sickness. Sturdy boots and proper (windproof) clothing are required, and trekking poles are helpful on the screen. An ice-ax may be needed on the remaining snowfields in the early summer. The ascent during the end of the winter and spring (February/March) is tougher . Crampons are needed to ascend through the snow and ice.
It is possible to climb the Peak over two days the first day will lead you to the basecamp refuge (around five hours), the second day of the summit (around five hours) and back to Imlil (up to five hours).
Berbers are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to North Africa. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the seventh century, a large number of Berbers inhabiting the Maghreb (Tamazgha) have acquired different degrees of knowledge of varieties of the languages of North Africa. After the colonization of North Africa by France, “the French government succeeded in integrating the French language in Algeria by making French the official national language and requiring all education to take place in French.” Foreign languages, mainly French and to some degree Spanish, inherited from former European colonial powers, are used by most educated Berbers in Algeria and Morocco in some formal contexts, such as higher education or business. Today, most Berber people live in North Africa, mainly in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia & Libya;Small Berber populations are also found in Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Egypt, as well as large immigrant communities living in France, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and other countries of Europe. The majority of Berbers are predominantly Sunni Muslim.The Berber identity is usually wider than language and ethnicity and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa. Berbers are not an entirely homogeneous ethnicity and they encompass a range of societies and ancestries. The unifying forces for the Berber people may be their shared language or a collective identification with Berber heritage and history. There are some twenty-five to thirty million Berber speakers in North Africa. The number of ethnic Berbers (including non-Berber speakers) is far greater, as a large part of the Berbers have acquired other languages over the course of many decades or centuries, and no longer speak Berber today. The majority of North Africa’s population is believed to be Berber in origin, although due to Arabization most ethnic Berbers identify as Arabized Berbers. Berbers call themselves some variant of the word i-Mazigh-en (singular: a-Mazigh), possibly meaning “free people” or “noblemen”. The name probably had its ancient parallel in the Roman and Greek names for Berbers, Mazices. Some of the best known of the ancient Berbers are the Numidian king Masinissa, king Jugurtha, the Berber-Roman author Apuleius, Saint Augustine of Hippo, and the Berber-Roman general Lusius Quietus, who was instrumental in defeating the major wave of Jewish revolts of 115–117. Dihya or Kahina was a religious and military leader who led a fierce Berber resistance against the Arab-Muslim expansion in Northwest Africa. Kusaila was a seventh-century leader of the Awraba tribe of the Berber people and King of the Sanhadja confederation. Yusuf ibn Tashfin was king of the Berber Almoravid empire; Tariq ibn Ziyad the general who conquered Hispania; Abbas Ibn Firnas, a prolific inventor and early pioneer in aviation; Ibn Battuta, a medieval explorer who traveled the longest known distances of his time.Read More
Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi). Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, and Nador. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbors. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 789, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and Northwestern Africa. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a guerrilla war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.
The earliest known independent state of Morocco was the Berber Kingdom of Mauretania under Bocchus I. This kingdom dates back to 110 BCE. From the 1st century BCE, Morocco was part of the Roman Empire as Mauretania Tingitana. Christianity was introduced in the 2nd century CE and gained converts in the Roman towns, among slaves and Berber farmers. In the 5th century CE as the Roman Empire declined, the region was invaded by the north by the Vandals and later the Visigoths. In the 6th century, northern Morocco became part of the Byzantine Empire. Throughout this time, however, the Berber inhabitants in the high mountains of the interior remained independent. In 670 CE, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads. The indigenous Berber tribes adopted Islam, but retained their customary laws. They also paid taxes and tribute to the new Muslim administration. The first independent Muslim state in the area of modern Morocco was the Kingdom of Nekor, an emirate in the Rif Mountains. It was founded by Salih I ibn Mansur in 710, as a client state. After the outbreak of the Berber Revolt in 739, the Berbers formed other independent states such as the Miknasa of Sijilmasa and the Barghawata. According to medieval legend, Idris Ibn Abdallah had fled to Morocco after the Abbasids’ massacre of the tribes in Iraq. He convinced the Awraba tribes to break the allegiance to distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and he founded the Idrisid Dynasty in 788. The Idrisids established Fez as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Muslim learning and major regional power. The Idrisids were ousted in 927 by the Fatimid Caliphate and their Miknasa allies. After Miknasa broke off relations with the Fatimids in 932, they were removed from power by the Maghrawa of Sijilmasa in 980. From the 11th century to the early 20th century onwards, a series of dynasties including the Almoravids, Almohads, Marinids, Wattasids, Saadis and Alaouites ruled Morocco until it was controlled by the Spanish and French. Morocco’s long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier was turned over to the new country that same year. Morocco annexed Western Sahara during the late 1970s, and even though the status of the territory remains unresolved, all maps in Morocco show Western Sahara as an integrated part of Morocco. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997, although the king still possesses the actual political power. The press is mostly state controlled even though there are free newspapers, and clampdowns have occurred following criticism of the authorities or articles concerning the Western Sahara situation.
The services we provide are all that the clients need to discover the Morocco: – Professional tour guides around Morocco. – Transportation with AC new cars(4WD – Van – Minivan – 6-48 seats). – Hotels. – Mules (carrying the luggage). -Materials. – guesthouses. – Berber houses.